Henry Stanhope was born May 29, 1855, the son of the 9th Earl of Chesterfield. His mother, Dorothea, was the daughter of Sir Adam Hay. His brother, Edwyn Francis, was born March 15, 1854, and was the 10th Earl of Chesterfield.
Stanhope entered into the Royal Navy in 1869, making Lieutenant ten years later. He served on the Nile Expedition (1885), earning the Khedives Star class of the Egyptian medal. He was Commander in 1892, and Captain by the time he retired in 1905. He succeeded his brother as 11th Earl of Chesterfield in 1933, and was living at 41 Grosvenor Square, W.1 and Benninhborough , York.
Stanhope died 2 years later on November 2, 1935, leaving a nephew as heir. His nephew was Edward Henry Scudamore-Stanhope of Stourwood, Bournemouth.